Dr Stuart McErlain-Naylor is a Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Biomechanics and Course Leader for BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Suffolk, UK.
His research interests include kinetic and kinematic analysis of sporting techniques (mostly ball striking sports), analysis of post-impact accelerations, and the mechanics of flywheel resistance exercise.
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PhD in Sports Biomechanics, 2018
Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice, 2020
University of Suffolk
BSc in Sport and Exercise Sciences, 2013
Flywheel (isoinertial) eccentric overload exercise induced post-activation performance enhancement
Editorial - free access here.
A logarithmic curve fitting methodology for the calculation of badminton racket-shuttlecock impact locations from three-dimensional motion capture data was presented and validated. Median absolute differences between calculated and measured impact locations were 3.6 [IQR: 4.4] and 3.5 [IQR: 3.5] mm mediolaterally and longitudinally on the racket face, respectively. Three-dimensional kinematic data of racket and shuttlecock were recorded for 2386 smashes performed by 65 international badminton players, with racket-shuttlecock impact location assessed against instantaneous post-impact shuttlecock speed and direction. Mediolateral and longitudinal impact locations explained 26.2% (quadratic regression; 95% credible interval: 23.1%, 29.2%; BF10 = 1.3 × 10131, extreme; p < 0.001) of the variation in participant-specific shuttlecock speed. A meaningful (BF10 = ∞, extreme; p < 0.001) linear relationship was observed between mediolateral impact location and shuttlecock horizontal direction relative to a line normal to the racket face at impact. Impact locations within one standard deviation of the pooled mean impact location predict reductions in post-impact shuttlecock speeds of up to 5.3% of the player’s maximal speed and deviations in the horizontal direction of up to 2.9° relative to a line normal to the racket face. These results highlight the margin for error available to elite badminton players during the smash.
The forehand jump smash is an essential attacking stroke within a badminton player’s repertoire. A key determinate of the stroke’s effectiveness is post-impact shuttlecock speed, and therefore awareness of critical technique factors that impact upon speed is important to players/coaches. Three-dimensional kinematic data of player, racket and shuttlecock were recorded for 18 experienced players performing maximal effort forehand jump smashes. Joint angles and X-factor (transverse plane pelvis-thorax separation) were calculated at key instants: preparation, end of retraction, racket lowest point, turning point and shuttlecock contact. Peak shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centre linear velocities, phase durations and jump height were also calculated. Correlational analyses were performed with post-impact shuttlecock speed, revealing significant correlations to peak wrist joint centre linear velocity (r = 0.767), acceleration phase duration (r = −0.543), shoulder internal/external rotation angle at shuttlecock contact (r = 0.508) and X-factor at the end of retraction (r = −0.484). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed 43.7% of the variance in shuttlecock speed could be explained by acceleration phase duration and X-factor at the end of retraction, where shorter acceleration phase durations and more negative X-factor at end of retraction caused greater shuttlecock speeds. These results suggest that motions of the proximal segments (shoulder and pelvis–thorax separation) are critical to developing greater distal linear velocities, which subsequently lead to greater post-impact shuttlecock speed.
The ability of a batsman to clear the boundary is a major contributor to success in modern cricket. The aim of this study was to identify technique parameters characterising those batsmen able to generate greater bat speeds, ball launch speeds, and carry distances during a range hitting task in cricket. Kinematic data were collected for 20 batsmen ranging from international to club standard, and a series of ball launch, bat-ball impact, and technique parameters were calculated for each trial. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis found impact location on the bat face in the medio-lateral and longitudinal directions and bat speed at impact to explain 68% of the observed variation in instantaneous post-impact ball speed. A further regression analysis found the X-factor (separation between the pelvis and thorax segments in the transverse plane) at the commencement of the downswing, lead elbow extension, and wrist uncocking during the downswing to explain 78% of the observed variation in maximum bat speed during the downswing. These findings indicate that players and coaches should focus on generating central impacts with the highest possible bat speed. Training and conditioning programmes should be developed to improve the important kinematic parameters shown to generate greater bat speeds, particularly focussing on increased pelvis to upper thorax separation in the transverse plane.
This study aimed to investigate the contributions of kinetic and kinematic parameters to inter-individual variation in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Two-dimensional kinematic data and ground reaction forces during a CMJ were recorded for 18 males of varying jumping experience. Ten kinetic and eight kinematic parameters were determined for each performance, describing peak lower-limb joint torques and powers, concentric knee extension rate of torque development and CMJ technique. Participants also completed a series of isometric knee extensions to measure the rate of torque development and peak torque. CMJ height ranged from 0.38 to 0.73 m (mean 0.55 ± 0.09 m). CMJ peak knee power, peak ankle power and take-off shoulder angle explained 74% of this observed variation. CMJ kinematic (58%) and CMJ kinetic (57%) parameters explained a much larger proportion of the jump height variation than the isometric parameters (18%), suggesting that coachable technique factors and the joint kinetics during the jump are important determinants of CMJ performance. Technique, specifically greater ankle plantar-flexion and shoulder flexion at take-off (together explaining 58% of the CMJ height variation), likely influences the extent to which maximal muscle capabilities can be utilised during the jump.
(1) Background: The aim of the study was to determine the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) of vertical and horizontal ground reaction force parameters during jumps and change of direction following flywheel squat exercise using two different flywheel inertias. (2) Methods: Eleven male athletes performed a countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), and “modified 505” change of direction (COD) in a control condition and 6 minutes following three sets of six repetitions of flywheel half squats at one of two inertias (0.029 kg·m2 and 0.061 kg·m2). Peak directional ground reaction force, power, and rate of force development were calculated for each test. (3) Results: Higher inertia flywheel squats were able to acutely enhance CMJ peak vertical force (Bayes Factor (BF10) = 33.5, very strong; δ = 1.66; CI: 0.67, 2.70), whereas lower inertia flywheel squats were able to acutely enhance CMJ peak vertical power (BF10 = 3.65, moderate; δ = 0.93; CI: 0.11, 1.88). The vertical squat exercise induced no PAPE effect on resultant SBJ or horizontal COD ground reaction force parameters, nor were any differences observed between the inertias. (4) Conclusions: Researchers and practitioners should consider the kinetic and kinematic correspondence of a pre-load stimulus to the subsequent sport-specific activity (i.e., flywheel squat to CMJ).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of varying flywheel inertia on velocity and power during flywheel squats. Fifteen healthy physically active males performed 6 maximal effort flywheel half-squats at each of 0.029, 0.061, 0.089, and 0.121 kg·m2, with velocity recorded via 3D motion capture and power recorded via inbuilt transducer. Peak concentric velocity (χ² = 37.9; p < 0.001), peak eccentric velocity (χ² = 24.9; p < 0.001), mean concentric velocity (F(3) = 52.7; p < 0.001), and mean eccentric velocity (χ² = 16.8; p < 0.001) all tended to decrease with increases in flywheel inertia, whereas the ratio of peak eccentric to peak concentric power (F(3) = 4.26; p = 0.010) tended to increase. Flywheel inertia had no significant effect on peak concentric or eccentric power, or the ratio of eccentric to concentric peak or mean velocities. The best fit subject-specific inertia-velocity relationships were reported for peak concentric velocity (median linear R2 = 0.95, median logarithmic R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that velocity, rather than power, should be used to prescribe and monitor flywheel squat exercise intensities, and that individualized linear relationships between inertia and peak concentric velocity can be used for this purpose.
The present study investigated the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) of isokinetic quadriceps and hamstrings torque after flywheel (FW)-squat vs. FW-deadlift in comparison to a control condition. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled in this randomised, crossover study. Each protocol consisted of 3 sets of 6 repetitions, with an inertial load of 0.029 kg.m2. Isokinetic quadriceps (knee extension) and hamstrings (knee flexion) concentric peak torque (60º/s) and hamstring eccentric peak torque (−60º/s) were measured 5 min after experimental or control conditions. A significant condition (PAPE) effect was reported (f = 4.067, p = 0.008) for isokinetic hamstrings eccentric peak torque following FW-squat and FW-deadlift, but no significant differences were found for quadriceps and hamstrings concentric peak torques. The significant difference averaged 14 Nm between FW-squat vs. control (95% CI: 2, 28; d = 0.75, moderate; p = 0.033), and 13 Nm between FW-deadlift vs. control (95% CI: 1, 25; d = 0.68, moderate; p = 0.038). This study reported that both FW-squat and FW-deadlift exercises are equivalently capable of generating PAPE of isokinetic hamstrings eccentric torque. Practitioners may use these findings to inform strength and power development during complex training sessions consisting of flywheel-based exercises prior to a sport-specific task.
The aim of this study was to investigate student experiences of publishing undergraduate research in biomechanics. A total of twenty-nine former students with experience of publishing peer-reviewed undergraduate biomechanics research completed an online survey regarding their perceived benefits, level of involvement, and experiences in aspects of the research process. On average, students perceived their experiences to be ‘largely helpful’ or greater in all aspects. Areas were identified corresponding to: the greatest perceived benefits (e.g. understanding of the research process); the least perceived benefits (e.g. statistical analysis skills); the greatest student involvement (e.g. reading relevant literature); and the least student involvement (e.g. developing hypotheses and/or methods). A thematic analysis of open question responses identified themes relating to: future career; skills; scientific process; intra / interpersonal factors; and pedagogy. Common intended learning outcomes may be achieved through involvement in the research process independently of the level of staff involvement. Staff should be encouraged to involve students in publishable biomechanics research projects where this is possible without compromising research standards and should explore ways of recreating the publishing process internally for all students.
Recent work has challenged the practice of extracting and analysing discrete summary metrics from continuous biomechanical data. This paper presents a practical comparison of candidate data analysis techniques including frequentist and Bayesian discrete analysis, frequentist and Bayesian statistical parametric mapping, and vector coding. Example 1 compares knee and hip flexion / extension angles during flywheel and barbell squats. Example 2 compares pelvis and thorax transverse rotations during badminton jump smashes by an international and a regional player. All example data and scripts are open-source. Statistical parametric mapping enables comparison of continuous biomechanical variables at time points other than discrete local optima. Combining this approach with vector coding provides information regarding differences in proximal-distal joint coordination throughout a movement. These continuous open-source methodologies can increase the validity and intuitive practical application of biomechanical conclusions.